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New water-oozing nano material could help quench thirst

Chemist Satish Nune was inspecting the solid, carbon-rich nanorods with a vapor analysis instrument when he noticed the nanorods mysteriously lost weight as humidity increased. Thinking the instrument had malfunctioned, Nune and his colleagues moved on to another tool, a high-powered microscope.

New nano material is potential humanitarian lifesaver

They jumped as they saw an unknown fluid unexpectedly appear between bunches of the tiny sticks and ooze out. Video recorded under the microscope is shaky at the beginning, as they quickly moved the view finder to capture the surprising event again.

The team at the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory would go on to view the same phenomenon more than a dozen times. Immediately after expelling the fluid, the nanorods’ weight decreased by about half, causing the researchers to scratch their heads even harder.

A paper published in Nature Nanotechnology describes the physical processes behind this spectacle, which turned out to be the first experimental viewing of a phenomenon theorized 20-some years ago. The discovery could lead to a large range of real-world applications, including low-energy water harvesting and purification for the developing world, and fabric that automatically pulls sweat away from the body and releases it as a vapor.

“Our unusual material behaves a bit like a sponge; it wrings itself out halfway before it’s fully saturated with water,” explained PNNL post-doctoral research associate David Lao, who manufactured the material.

“Now that we’ve gotten over the initial shock of this unforeseen behavior, we’re imagining the many ways it could be harnessed to improve the quality of our lives,” said PNNL engineer David Heldebrant, one of the paper’s two corresponding authors.

“But before we can put these nanorods to good use, we need to be able to control and perfect their size and shape,” added Nune, the paper’s other corresponding author.

Expectations v. Reality

Ordinarily, materials take on more water as the humidity around them increases. But these carbon-rich nanorods — which the researchers mistakenly created while trying to fabricate magnetic nanowires — suddenly expelled a large amount of water as the relative humidity inside the specimen holder reached anywhere between 50 and 80 percent.

Water expulsion can clearly be seen in the microscope video. Water is visible as a gray, cloudy haze — and only emerges from where nanorods intersect. When the team went on to raise the humidity further, the nanorods’ weight also increased, indicating they were taking on water again. It was also reversible, with water being ejected and later absorbed as humidity was gradually lowered back down.

The team was further intrigued. They couldn’t think of any other material that takes on water at a low humidity and spontaneously releases it at a high humidity. So they dug through the canons of scientific literature to find an explanation.

Old theory, new evidence

They found a 2012 paper in the Journal of Physical Chemistry B that explained how, in certain situations where liquid is confined in a teeny-tiny space (roughly 1.5 nanometers wide), the liquid can spontaneously evaporate. And the authors of a 2013 paper in the (Journal of Chemical Physics described how water can condense into the confines of close hydrophobic materials, which do not play well with water, and quickly turn into vapor due to attractive forces between the surfaces of the two materials facing each other. The 2013 paper gave this phenomenon a very long, technical name: “solvent cavitation under solvo-phobic confinement.”

These papers also noted the process was theorized as early as the 1990s by scientists examining crystallized proteins. Back then, scientists noticed they only saw water vapor surrounding hydrophobic sections of protein, while liquid water would surround other areas. The researchers proposed that there was some sort of process that enabled the water caught between hydrophobic protein sections to suddenly vaporize.

Armed with this knowledge, the PNNL team hypothesized water was condensing and forming a bridge between the nanorods, through a process known as capillary condensation. Next, they believe water between rods forms a curved cavity whose surface tension pulls the adjacent rods closer together. When two intersecting nanorods reach about 1.5 nanometers apart, the team reasoned, the water caught between them could be forced to quickly evaporate.

Though understanding the nanorods’ unexpected behavior is a triumph in itself, the PNNL team also foresees a future where this phenomenon could also improve quality of life. They see their discovery as a potential humanitarian lifesaver, describing it as “a paradigm shift in water purification and separation,” in their paper.

Theoretically, large quantities of the water-spitting nanomaterial could repeatedly take on and then eject collected water when a certain humidity level is reached. Such a system could be used in remote deserts, where it would collect water from the air and harvest it for human consumption. Another vision is to create a membrane that takes on and later expels water as humidity changes.

The membrane could be used in jacket fabrics and enable more comfortable outdoor adventures by removing sweat from inside a jacket and emitting it outside as a vapor. To make these applications possible, the team is exploring ways to make more of its nanorods spray water. The team estimates only around 10 to 20 percent of the material spits water right now. The plan is to scale up production of the current material, creating more than a few grams of the material at a time. They will do further analysis to ensure the phenomenon is still present when larger amounts are present. They are also conducting a more detailed examination of the material’s physical and chemical properties and determining if other materials that have similar properties. The team is also intrigued by the idea other nanomaterials could potentially be developed to collect other liquids, such as methanol ( via sciencedaily.com ).

Edible double membrane water bottle to cause a splash at EU sustainability awards

Text “The Ooho edible water bottle. The double membrane encapsulating the water is made from calcium chloride and a seaweed product, sodium alginate.

An edible alternative to plastic water bottles made from seaweed has topped the UK round of an EU competition for new, more sustainable products.

The new spherical form of packaging, called Ooho and described by its makers as “water you can eat”, is biodegradeable, hygenic and costs 1p per unit to make. It is made chiefly from calcium chloride and a seaweed derivative called sodium alginate.

Ooho won the joint award with Alchemie Technologie, who have created a digital way of dispensing dye for the textile industry. Clothes are dyed selectively using a product similar to an industrial inkjet printer, replacing the full immersion process used currently, which consumes vast quantities of chemicals, water and heat.

Both companies take home €20,000 of investment from the competition run by Climate KIC, created by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT), the EU body tasked with galvanising the transformation to a sustainable economy. They will go on to compete against entrepreneurs from across Europe.

With global sales of packaged water hitting 223bn litres this year, Ian Ellerington, Director of Science and Innovation at the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change and one of the judges of the competition, told the Guardian: “[Ooho] is a good replacement packaging that would be really widely applicable across lots of different products. The potential for packaging reduction is really high for one of the petroleum products used across the world.”

Ooho designer Pierre Paslier, described the product as like a “man-made fruit”, which uses a double membrane to contain water. To carry larger quantities of water, a number of the capsules can be packed into a larger and thicker skin: much like an orange.

He told the Guardian: “At the end of the day you don’t have to eat it. But the edible part shows how natural it is. People are really enthusiastic about the fact that you can create a material for packaging matter that is so harmless that you can eat it.”

He added: “So many things are wrong about plastic bottles: the time they take to decompose, the amount of energy that goes into making them and the fact we are using more and more.” Investors are showing an increasing interest in clean technologies, with the global market soaring to £205bn ($310bn) in 2014, a 16% increase. In June, the world’s richest man and Microsoft founder Bill Gates pledged to invest $2bn in breakthrough renewable technologies. Another finalist presented a cloud-based software system that enables the National Grid to pay people not to use energy at times of peak demand.

It is designed to work with household water boilers, solar powered batteries, electric vehicles or the back-up power supplies used by many businesses for appliances from computers to traffic lights. They are using the technology to work with electric car company Tesla to help make their home power storage batteries more financially viable for consumers. Graham Oakes CEO and founder of Upside Energy said the solution is “a win for just about everybody except the coal miners.”

The company believes the product will be on the market by 2017, with pilot schemes planned for next year. They are aiming to save 500MW of battery hours by 2025, equivalent to 1% of peak load in winter or creating a medium-sized power station. Oakes says the system works automatically and will “help people to do the right thing without having to change their behaviour”. Other finalists presented a water purifier that captures energy from solar panels, an index that allows investors to track their financial exposure to carbon and a process that uses bio tanks to create paper from waste straw instead of trees. Entries were showcased on Wednesday at the Science Museum in London ( via theguardian.com ).” copied.

Engineer creates a device capable of producing drinking water in the desert

Text “A 75 year-old engineer has managed to create a machine capable of producing drinking water in the desert According to its inventor, the prototype of this machine is capable of producing 3000 liters of drinking water a day, even in the driest desert on our planet. Just imagine what our ancestors would have said when seeing a device that creates water out of “nothing.”

I believe Mr. Veiga would have been considered as some sort of god? Perhaps the bringer of “fresh water”? It amazing how technology changes society and our lives in general. Generador-de-agua-potable-con-su-inventor Its inventor, 75-year old Enrique Veiga, a refrigeration engineer from Seville, Spain managed to develop a mechanism able to extract moisture from the air and transform it into water. The revolutionary machine uses the same amount of electricity as a domestic washing machine to autonomously create drinking water, rainwater similar characteristics.

To obtain the current design of the machine and its maximum output, Veiga had a lot of work to do. ” I started working on this device nearly twenty years ago, the first registered patent is from 1995, when a drought was crossing Spain and made me work on this.

With this incredible invention, people would be able to overcome the lack of water in extreme situations such as those in refugee camps and natural disasters, having drinkable water free of contaminants. It can also be used to generate water supply for small domestic consumption.

It is another revolutionary idea that can definitely push mankind towards a better quality of life. ”

PLEASE NOTE: VIDEO IS IN SPANISH

German study: More than 24,500 chemicals found in bottled water

Bottled water has become a bit of a trend – specific brands with unique shapes that tell the world a little something about you. While your bottle of water might make you appear to be a purveyor of optimal hydration, it is also a red flag that you may be exposing your body to an onslaught of chemicals.

In a recent study by German researchers, nearly 25,000 chemicals were found lurking in a single bottle of water. Many of these chemicals mimic the effects of potent pharmaceuticals inside your body, according to the study published in the journal PLoS One.

The study was broken into two parts. For the initial portion, the researchers tested 18 samples of various commercially sold water bottles from around the globe. Through chemical analyses, they tested the water to determine if it interfered with the body’s estrogen and androgen receptors. Tap water was tested as well, for comparison. The researchers were shocked to learn that most of the bottled waters revealed interference with both kinds of hormone receptors; amounts as little as 0.1 ounces inhibited estrogenic activity by 60 percent and androgenic activity by 90 percent. The tap water, on the other hand, showed no activity on either form of receptor.

During the second part of the study, the scientists sought to pinpoint which chemicals were the cause of reproductive hormonal interferences. Using other forms of detection to isolate the various chemicals, the researchers found more than 24,500 different chemicals in the bottled waters – including two classes of chemicals, maleates and fumarates, which are known potent endocrine disruptors (hormonally active chemicals). Maleates and fumarates are utilized to manufacture plastic resins, which are used to make water bottles, and they may also appear as contaminants of other plastic chemicals.

Despite these alarming results, you don’t have to fear for your life, if you have been toting bottled waters around for years. Good hydration is important, and sometimes, there aren’t other options. As a healthy adult, the occasional sip from the “toxic fountain” of bottled water won’t kill you. However, small children, women of child-bearing age, and pregnant women are at greater risk of poor outcomes when exposed to these chemicals. Effects can include stunted growth, early puberty, premature birth, infertility and early menopause – just to name a few. The remaining population should still exercise caution, as more and more research is discovering that these chemical can also trigger diabetes, heart disease and certain types of cancer.

Instead, make it a habit to carry a refillable water bottle. Many cities and states are beginning to convert water fountains to more easily accommodate refilling your water bottle. This began as an effort to protect the environment, but following this study, it would appear the benefits are dual fold. Earlier this year the FDA banned bisphenol-A (BPA), a common chemical used to make plastic bottles and linings of cans, from some food-related plastics. The ban also included baby bottles and sippy cups, though manufacturers say they had already eliminated the chemical in their products. It would seem, however, BPA isn’t the only problem when it comes to chemicals leaking into the food supply.

Take control of your health. Invest in a reusable water bottle. Choosing bottles made of nontoxic glass or stainless steel are highly recommended to ensure your health and safety. Many manufacturers have begun making glass bottles covered by a rubber cover to prevent breakage and simplify your commitment to health. And, of course there is one more benefit – by choosing to carry a refillable water bottle, you avoid that $2 plus charge every time you’re thirsty.

California property values collapse as water shut-offs begin…

Water shut-offs have now begun in California, where government-ordered restrictions are starting to leave large communities high and dry. As CBS News is now reporting, the Mountain House community of 15,000 residents will run out of water in just a matter of days.

“The community’s sole source of water, the Byron-Bethany Irrigation District, was one of 114 senior water rights holders cut off by a curtailment notice from the state on Friday,” reports CBS.

And just like that, the property values of millions of dollars worth of homes belonging to 15,000 residents nosedives toward zero.

After all, what’s the value of a home that has no running water? California isn’t Africa… yet… so the idea of carrying your own buckets of water for bathing isn’t widely accepted.

As Natural News readers know, I saw all this coming. In a May 7th article entitled Why the California water crisis will lead to a housing collapse, municipal bankruptcies and a mass exodus of climate refugees, I wrote:

How many California homes and businesses are headed for a zero-water future? Many millions. How many Californians are aware of all this and already have their homes on the market so they can move somewhere else? A very small number… a tiny fraction of the total number of home and property owners invested there.

What these people are unfortunately not yet seeing is the catastrophic consequences of a continued drought and how it can utterly destroy the value of their property.

In that same article, I also foretold what’s going to happen next: plunging property tax revenues, municipal bankruptcies, a wave of climate refugees fleeing California and the collapse of the California economy. Unless rain starts falling out of the sky, all this is going to start unraveling like clockwork. (Count on it.)

“A number of water districts plan to sue the state on the grounds the State Water Resources Control Board has no legal authority to cut off some of California?s oldest and most protected water rights,” reports CBS. And so the water wars begin: there’s not enough water to go around, and the courtroom serves as the new battleground over a resource that the state of California has squandered for far too long.

Just as I predicted in May, the collapse of real estate valuations in California is already well under way.

As the Washington Post now reports:

Rancho Santa Fe resident Randy Woods was feeling burdened by his lush landscape and opted to downsize. …The drought has dampened demand for large estates in San ­Diego County.

Woods said his girlfriend is among those struggling to sell. Her home boasts a yard designed by Kate Sessions, a well-known landscape architect and botanist who died in 1940. But now, the rare palm tree specimens, the secret garden and the turret-shaped hedges are a liability rather than a selling point.

Another friend, Woods said, has seen the value of his nine-acre plot plummet from $30 million to $22 million.

Did you read that correctly? A multi-million-dollar estate has lost over 25% of its value virtually overnight due to the issue of water. And this collapse in property prices is for properties that still have running water. What happens when the water supply to a $30 million estate is cut off? The value collapses to almost nothing. Who wants to live in a $30 million mansion and pay seven figures of property tax each year to the same California government that cuts off your water supply? Who wants to live like a third world refugee in a $30 million estate?

Nobody in their right mind, it turns out. Not even in California.

As this drought has unfolded, my message to Californians has been consistent and simple: freak out early and you might still be able to sell and leave. But if you delay, you’ll be among the last people holding near-worthless property.

This isn’t difficult to predict. As the sell-off begins, property valuations will plunge in an accelerated manner. (It has already begun.) The more water gets cut off by the government, the more desperate people will be to sell and leave. The term “motivated seller” will be ratcheted up to “panicked seller” and then finally “fire sale!”

People who buy the properties will soon be able to pick up once-prized real estate for dimes on the dollar. But it’s a gamble: If the rainfall comes back, property valuations may recover. And yet, according to nearly all the people who live in California right now, this drought is all caused by man-made global warming. And because I don’t see China shutting down its coal-fired power plants anytime soon, there’s no end to this drought if the climate change alarmists are correct.

California, it seems, is reverting back to a barren desert. Meanwhile, far too many of the people who live in California remain in a state of absolute denial over where this is all headed. Overall, I love California optimism, and many of my best friends live in California. But as anyone who lives in Los Angeles knows all too well, California is also the home of fantasyland dream weavers… people who live in their minds instead of reality. (Oh yeah, and I have a really awesome script I need you to read… it will change the movie industry forever!)

Delusional thinking is also a key trait of California’s political leadership. These are people who think money falls out of the sky and water runs uphill. They’ve recently even decided that California should cover the health care costs of the children of illegal immigrants.

And why not? If you’re going to live in Delusionville, you might as well dress it up with all the false hope and delusional wishes on your list: free health care for everyone, unlimited debt spending on entitlement programs, magical waterfalls of free H2O falling out of the clouds, and so on.

I once lived in Arizona, and many of the street names there envision concepts that are total fiction: Waterfall Lane, Great Spring Drive, Surging Rivers Rd. and so on. (Most of the rivers in Southern Arizona are bone dry riverbeds nearly all the time.) Wouldn’t it be great if California renamed its own streets and thoroughfares to match its own fantasies? Everything Is Free Hwy and Limitless Entitlements Drive seem especially fitting. Why not open a new swimming area called No Consequences Beach?

I think I’ll also take a long, meandering drive down If I Think It, It Must Be Real Highway, where “positive thinking” overpowers negative obstacles to such an amazing degree that you don’t even need to wear seatbelts or turn on your headlights.

For those who are saying, “There’s no water problem in California! It has the entire Pacific Ocean right next door!”, you need to look into the catastrophic environmental destruction tied to ocean water desalination.

Not only does desalination use fossil fuels which emit the very same carbon emissions that the California government insists caused the drought in the first place, the desalination process itself pollutes the ocean with high concentration salt brine that kills marine ecosystems and destroys ocean life along the California coastline.

And that’s on top of all the Fukushima radiation that’s already causing a marine ecosystem collapse in many areas of the coast. Add more salt brine to the mix and you get a state where rich, self-entitled Hollywood celebrities demand their lush, green lawns at the expense of ocean life, climate change and the global ecosystem. If that happens, California will lose all credibility as a “green” state, and its wealthiest residents will be living an ecological lie.

The new green, it turns out, is actually BROWN.

I fully realize it’s entirely evil of me to think ahead and point out what’s coming. There is no person more hated in modern society than someone who tells the truth. (Just ask Donald Trump, who’s now running for President by abandoning political correctness and stating the obvious.)

But when I see headlines like Rich Californians balk at limits: ‘We’re not all equal when it comes to water’, I can tell you without hesitation that California’s water woes have only begun.

If you live in California and don’t have your own individual water supply — a private well that still works, large-scale rainwater collection in a rare area that still has rainfall, access to a private year-round stream, etc. — you either wake up to what’s coming or you get steamrolled by it.

Think of California as a jumbo jet that has just run out of fuel and is plummeting toward a mountain. You can either grab a parachute and bail out, or you can plug in your headphones and keep watching the in-flight Hollywood entertainment, pretending nothing bad is happening outside your immediate focus.

I know this isn’t the good news you wanted to hear. It’s much nicer to turn on the local TV and hear how Gov. Jerry Brown is going to brilliantly solve all of California’s problems by using the magic of wishful thinking and sleight-of-mind economic trickery. Meanwhile, in the real world, the taps are running dry, employers are fleeing the state’s high taxes, the almond orchards have shriveled into dust, the flood of non-citizen immigrants is draining the state’s revenues and property valuations are about to fall off a cliff.

Perhaps the California that has been promoted by socialist-minded propagandists can be recreated as a virtual reality destination for Oculus Rift fans, but in the real world, nobody wants to live in third-world conditions and drink their own recycled urine. Not even Ed Begley, Jr., and he’s a pretty cool dude who’s willing to do almost anything to save the planet.

( via naturalnews.com )

Bye Bye Oxygen Tanks: Aquaman Crystal To Help Humans Breathe Underwater

This is a great piece of news for scuba divers, swimmers, as well as non-swimmers – basically anyone who wants to go underwater, stay submerged and breathe as a fish. Scientists from the University of Southern Denmark and the University of Sydney, recently developed an oxygen absorbing crystal, Aquaman Crystal, or “[{(bpbp)Co2II(NO3)}2(NH2bdc)](NO3)2 * 2H2O” capable of pulling oxygen out of both air and water. The crystalline material can bind and store oxygen in high concentrations. The stored oxygen can be released again when and where it is needed.

 

The study, by Professor Christine McKenzie and Jonas Sundberg, showed that approximately 10 liters of microscopic crystal grains, could be enough to completely suck the oxygen out of a room.

“This could be valuable for lung patients who today must carry heavy oxygen tanks with them. But also divers may one day be able to leave the oxygen tanks at home and instead get oxygen from this material as it “filters” and concentrates oxygen from surrounding air or water. A few grains contain enough oxygen for one breath, and as the material can absorb oxygen from the water around the diver and supply the diver with it, the diver will not need to bring more than these few grains,” McKenzie said.

When the crystalline-made material, obtained by using x-ray diffraction, is saturated with oxygen, it behaves like an oxygen tank containing three times more oxygen than regular tanks.

“An important aspect of this new material is that it does not react irreversibly with oxygen – even though it absorbs oxygen in a so-called selective chemisorptive process. The material is both a sensor, and a container for oxygen – we can use it to bind, store and transport oxygen – like a solid artificial haemoglobin. It is also interesting that the material can absorb and release oxygen many times without losing the ability. It is like dipping a sponge in water, squeezing the water out of it and repeating the process over and over again,” she added.

The new material uses the element cobalt, bound in an organic molecule. “Cobalt gives the new material precisely the molecular and electronic structure that enables it to absorb oxygen from its surroundings. Small amounts of metals are essential for the absorption of oxygen, so actually it is not entirely surprising to see this effect in our new material,” she explained.

The material has been dubbed the Aquaman crystal, after the DC comic book character who can breathe underwater.

Bends comes from the phenomenon of air molecules compressing at pressure. As they compress, they enter into the muscles, etc., of the body. This is where decompression comes in — as you rise back to the surface, the air molecules begin to expand again so divers stop at stages to allow them to work their way back into the bloodstream. Otherwise, the molecules will expand in the muscles and tear them apart. The effects can range from feeling like crap to death.

Divers regularly use pure oxygen to help with decompression: it refreshes you after a long deep dive, but we’re very careful not to breathe it below 15 feet although it’s quite safe to that depth. If you breathe it down below 30 feet, it becomes quite toxic and absolutely can kill you. Regular compressed air is pretty safe to about 200 feet, although you will certainly experience nitrogen narcosis, which isn’t toxic but intoxicating — quite fun actually and there are those who seek out the experience. At 300 feet, though, the oxygen in the compressed air (about 20%), again, becomes very dangerous. Just guidelines, because people react differently. Sport divers generally are limited to 60 feet, but cave divers regularly operate at twice that depth and considerably deeper — beyond 200 feet, though, is mixed gas country.

( via anonhq.com )

How Long Can You Store Water In Plastic Containers?

A-lot of people are apparently concerned about the (health) effects of plastic as it pertains to drinking water storage (‘bottles’, jugs, containers, barrels, etc.), and I thought I would give my opinion on the subject as it relates to survival and preparedness…

Not all plastic is created equal.

However there are certain plastics which are considered food safe. Plastic generally considered safe for food (or water):

#1 (PETE)
#2 (HDPE)*
#4 (LDPE)
#5 (PP)

*Apparently, not all HDPE #2 (buckets and containers) are food grade – those which may have been manufactured with a non-food-grade “mold release agent”. More here
Most plastic water ‘bottles’ (the kind you get in the 24-pack flats, etc.), and the plastic of soda and juice containers, are made from #1 PETE, and are apparently BPA-free nowadays (based on what I’ve discovered online about this subject).

Most 1-gallon jugs (water, milk, etc.) are of #2 plastic. By the way, it’s difficult to get all the milk ‘stuff’ and flavor out if you choose to reuse a milk jug for water storage.

‘Blue’ colored water containers (and barrels) that are specifically manufactured ‘food safe’ are made of #2 plastic. Not all food safe containers are blue, but many are (for quick identification).

#4 plastic is used for things like plastic bags, and #5 plastic is used for things like Rubbermaid type food storage containers, etc.

I have spent a-lot of time researching the general subject of various plastics versus their apparent safety for food and water, and there is a-lot of opinion and passion about it.

Having said that, I have come to my own conclusions about how to best deal with the possibility of ‘bad’ chemicals leaching into the water in which it’s stored.

Regarding #1 plastic, the fact that it is thinner (than #2) makes it less than ideal for long term water storage. In addition, I have discovered that #1 plastic will more readily leach a ‘plastic’ taste into the water if it is heated up in any way – especially over time.

waterA2

For example, if you leave a plastic water bottle in your hot car, then drink it after it has been sitting there for a time, chances are you will taste a bit of plastic. This can’t be good over the long term.

Regarding #2 plastic, even though it may be considered food grade, given the controversy surrounding long term effects of leaching, it makes sense to rotate your water sooner rather than later.

My opinion is that if you’re storing water for long term, and if using plastic containers, you should use #2 HDPE food grade. You should also drain and refresh your water every 6 months. The water should be stored in a cool place, out of the sun.

With that said, the bigger picture is this:

When it comes to SHTF survival, the issues of long term effects from (the possibility) of leaching (even though the plastic is considered food grade) is miniscule in comparison to the need for water itself.

You will die without any water after 3 days (more or less).

How long will (the possibility) of leaching take before it affects you? Maybe decades? Maybe never?

“Don’t sweat it.” Just store some water!

 

Article original source: http://www.bioprepper.com/2015/05/18/how-long-can-you-store-water-in-plastic-containers/